the structure, can dissipate the external input enerv into the system through the sloshing effect of the liquid inside the partially filled small containers. The proportions of the TLD are determined such that the liquid’s sloshing frequency is tuned to the vibration frequency of the structure. That will result in optimal performance of the TLD. The interaction between the TLD and the structure takes place through a shearforce produced by the dTerence in
prsure acted upon the TID walls. In this pea•, the application of the TLD
in reducing the seismic-induced vibration of the shear buildinß will be considered. In this rewrd, first the wverning differential equations of the üshing liquid are adapted using the nonlinear shallow water wave
theory (two-dimensional Napier Stokes equations) for the rectangular tanks subjected to ground acceleration. Using some coeffcients obtained for the case of harmonic base excitation, these equations are generalized to consider the different liquid dampinw and the wave breaking issue. Then, the equations of the motion of a MDOF shear building is derived taking into account the interaction of the TLD. Numerical simulations were
performed to investigate the performance of the TLDfor the harmonic base excitations with and without wave
breaking and for the earthquake input. Finally, to extend the application of the TLD for the short or intermediate building Aructures with short period of vibration, a combingtion of TLD and base isolation
(LRB) is proposed. The Mormance of-the TLD for the base structures under full-scale earthquake loading is studied.
TLD (tuned liquid damper)
Sun, L. M., Fujino, Y., Pacheco, B. M., and Chaiseri, P., “Modeling of Tuned Liquid Damper
(TLD),” Joumal of Wind Engineering and Industrial
Aerodynamics, Vol. 41-44, pp. 1883-1894, 1992.
Fujii, k., Tamura, Y., Sato, T., and Wakahara, T.,
“Wind-Induced Vibration of Tower and Practical Applications of Tuned Sloshing Damper,” In Sato (editor), Bluff Body Aerodynamics, pp. 263-282, 1990.
Wakahara, T., Ohyama, T., and Fujii,
“Suppression of Wind-Induced Vibration of a Tall
Building Using Tuned Liquid Damper,” Joumal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 41-44, pp. 1895-1906, 1992.
Tamura, Y., Fujii, K., and Ohtsuki, “Effectiveness of Tuned Liquid Dampers,” Engineering Structures, vol. 17, No. 9, pp. 609-621, 1995.
Sun, L. M., Fujino, Y., Pacheco, B. M., and Isobe, M.,
“Nonlinear Waves and Dynamic Pressures in Rectangular Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) -Simulation and Experimental Verification,” Structural Eng./ Earthquake Eng., Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 251s-262s, (Proc. of JSCE No. 410/1-12), 1989.
frequency shift coefficient
LRB (laminated rubber bearing)
Koh, C. G, Mahatma, S., and Wang, C. M.,
“Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Rectangular Liquid Dampers Under Arbitrary Excitations,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, vol. 23, pp. 17-31, 1994.
Shimizu, T., and Hayama, S., “Nonlinear Response of Sloshing Based on The Shallow Water Wave Theory,” JSME International Journal, Vol. 30, No. 236, pp. 806-813, 1987.
Gill, F., “A Process For The Step by Step Integration of Differential Equations in an
Automatic Digital Computing Machine,” Proc., CANMB., PHIL., sec., 47, pp. 96-108, 1951.
Celia, M. A, and Gray, W. G., Numerical Methods for Differential Equations (Fundamental Concepts
for Scientific and Engineering Application),
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.